How To Make Solar Panels, The demand for alternative energy sources has increased recently, after realizing the disadvantages of fossil energy sources, such as: oil and coal, which pollute the environment and cause global warming, and are vulnerable to depletion after a period of consumption. Solar energy is one of the sources of renewable energy. That is, it is not permeable, because the sun shines every morning and provides us with the light and warmth we need. The solar energy can also be exploited by using solar cells that convert the sun’s rays into electrical energy that can be used in many fields. 
Photovoltaic Cell – How To Make Solar Panels
Is based on converting solar energy into electrical energy based on a phenomenon called the photovoltaic effect. Solar cells are often built from semiconducting silicon crystals, and some impurities such as phosphorous are added to them to improve their ability to conduct electricity, and when rays fall The sun absorbs silicon crystals. This stimulates the electrons, which are bound by covalent bonds, to release, and begin to move randomly inside the silicon crystal, which generates an electric current.  Among the most famous types of solar cells are: 
Monocrystalline solar cells: made of pure silicon, and it is the most efficient type of solar cell in converting light energy into electrical energy. Its efficiency reaches 20%, and it lasts longer than other types. However, they are considered to be very expensive.
Polycrystalline solar cells: They are the first solar cells that were manufactured in 1981, and they are made of silicon crystals that are less pure than those used in making monocrystalline solar cells, so they are less efficient. Its efficiency ranges between 13-16%, and it is also cheaper.
Solar Cells: They are solar cells made from several layers of chips, and their efficiency ranges between 7-13%, and can be classified into several types according to the material used in their manufacture, including: amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride, selenide, copper, indium, and gallium .
How to make solar panels
Solar panels can be manufactured by following the following steps: 
Purchasing solar cells: When purchasing solar cells, it is taken into account to purchase cells with high efficiency and low cost (it is preferable to use polycrystalline solar cells), and the number of solar cells is chosen depending on the amount of energy that is to be produced.
Preparing a panel of insulating material: You can choose a sheet of wood, plastic, or glass so that its size is suitable for the number and arrangement of the solar cells, while leaving a sufficient distance from the edges to connect the electrical wires. Wood is the best choice because you can easily drill holes in it for electrical wires to pass through.
Measuring and cutting the connection wires: A number of short lines that extend over the width of the solar cell appear on the solar cell, and two long lines that extend along the length of the solar cell, and cut the connection wires (in English: Tabbing Wire) Each solar cell will need two wires; Each of them is twice the length of the two long lines in the middle of the solar cell.
Connection wires: welded the two connecting wires to the back side of the solar cell using a welding gun, and this is repeated for all solar cells. Be careful that the two wires are along the two long lines that appear on the front of the solar cell.
Installing solar cells: The cells are fixed on the insulation board using glue that is placed on the middle of the back side of the cells, and a little pressure is applied to install them on the board, then it must be ensured that the two ends of the connecting wires from each cell appear and that the wires can be moved easily, it is preferable to arrange the solar cells in rows, On the other hand, it is possible to increase the number of cells in each row, and take into account that the rows of cells are installed in opposite directions, so that the connecting wire appears on the first row on one side, and it appears on the opposite side in the next row, and so on, taking into account leaving an empty space at the edges of the board.
Connecting the solar cells to each other: How To Make Solar Panels
- The connecting wire is connected at the end of one cell to the front of the next cell, and this is repeated every time, and the wires of the first cell are welded with the wires of the second cell.
- Extend the two connection wires welded to the first solar cell of the first row, and weld them with a public connection wire (in English: Bus Wire), and repeat that in the first cell of the second row.
- Lay the two wires of connection at the end of the first row of cells, the two wires at the beginning of the second row of cells, and solder the four wires using a common wiring harness.
- Connecting the rest of the rows, in the same way, using the long general wires until reaching the end, then a short general connection wire is used, like the one used in the first cell of the first row, the general connecting wire connected to the first cell of the first row represents the positive pole of the solar cell panel.
- The universal wire connected to the last cell of the last row represents the negative pole of the solar cell panel. Building a box of compressed wood to place the solar cells in it, preferably painting the box with reflective colors so that the box remains cool.
- As the cells work best when they are cold, and the coating of the box contributes to protecting it from external factors and extending its life, after that the solar cells are placed inside the box so that they face up.
- Connect the universal lead wire that is the cathode to a diode, or a diode (in English: Diode) with an amperage greater than that produced by a solar panel, and fix it with a little silicon.
- Connecting a black wire to the diode, and connecting it on the other side to a group of terminal blocks that are installed on the side of the box, and connecting the opposite side of the terminal group to the positive pole of the solar cell panel.
- Connecting the solar panel to a charge controller (English: Charge Controller), taking into account that the negative and positive terminals are connected properly, and connect the wires from the group of terminals to the charge controller, and it is preferable to use color-coded wires to track the charges.
- Connect the charge controller to batteries suitable for the size of the solar cell panel, according to the manufacturer’s instructions. After the batteries are connected and charged from the solar panels, electronic devices can be operated using the batteries.
- Close the box tightly using a suitable sheet of synthetic glass, and take care to close the gaps to prevent water from leaking into the box.
- Installing solar panels in the appropriate way, and several methods can be chosen, including: Installing the panels on a cart so that the direction of the panel can be adjusted depending on the direction of the sun to increase the amount of solar energy that can be obtained during the day, or installing the panels on the roof of the house, provided that the angle of the roof is suitable for the direction of the sun.
- The sun is at least at its prime, which is often noon, or the panels can be installed on the base of a satellite receiver, and they can be programmed to move with the movement of the sun.
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