Solar energy (in English: Solar Energy) is one of the most abundant renewable energy sources in the world, and it is solar radiation that can be used for several things, the most important of which are: production of chemical reactions, heat production and electricity generation, in addition to the fact that solar energy is spread throughout The world, it is considered a clean source that does not cause pollution, so if it is exploited and utilized appropriately, it will meet a large proportion of the world’s energy needs in the future. 
The potential of solar energy as an energy supplier
It is possible to take advantage of sunlight and collect it to convert it into another form of energy, such as: electric energy, using modern technology and techniques, thus establishing projects to generate solar energy depends on the amount of solar radiation that falls on a specific area to determine the potential of solar energy in it. The amount of radiation reaching a particular area varies according to the geographical location of the region, its general climate, and the length of the day for that region. 
In order to determine the potential of solar energy as an important energy resource in a particular area, the amount of radiation falling on this area is measured at different times of the year. Then compare it with other areas located on the same latitude, and the data resulting from measuring the amount of incident radiation is expressed in kilowatt hours per square meter (kilowatt * hour / square meter). Its stay in this region.  
Generating solar energy
To generate solar energy and converting it into a form that can be utilized. Some techniques should be available that collect photons resulting from solar radiation and work to convert them into electricity or heat. Among these technologies:
Photovoltaic arrays (in English: Photovoltaic Arrays) convert solar energy into electrical energy by the photoelectric conversion process using photovoltaic cells. This array is a number of photovoltaic cells connected together using metallic materials, and connected to a frame that supports them, which produces more energy than the produced energy From one cell, and each photoelectric cell is mainly made of cured silicon, which is manufactured in a way that allows electricity to be transmitted through it, and the matrix is connected to the rest of the solar energy generation system. 
The inverter is the part responsible for converting solar energy into a form that can be used, as the amount and type of energy produced from photovoltaics suffers from problems, as it produces a constant electric current and this type of currents is not suitable for all devices, and the amount of energy That produced by the cell is not fixed due to the difference in the amount of rays incident on it, so the inverter deals with these problems by converting DC into AC current suitable for all devices, and it also addresses the problem of the amount of unstable energy and works to produce a fixed amount of energy, as well as ensuring the stability of the system voltage. ]
Photovoltaic Array Control Array
The photovoltaic Array Controller increases the efficiency of the solar energy generation system, by tracking the sun’s rays using light sensors, and moving the PV array towards the sun’s rays to collect the largest amount of sunlight using controllers, and after energy production It can be used to power devices or other things by installing this system with the required hardware. 
Storing solar energy
When generating solar energy in order to convert it into another form, it faces the problem of its inability to generate and produce energy in the evening, so it was necessary to have methods for storing this energy, and among these methods:
Photovoltaic energy storage: batteries are used within the system to store electricity when it is charged, and it is a basic requirement for these batteries to be rechargeable, as they store energy during the day, to be used in the evening, then recharge during the day.
Thermal energy storage: This pattern is special in water heating systems that convert solar energy into thermal energy, as these systems contain a simplified storage system in the form of solar energy collectors, and when needed, hot water moves from the storage pools to the desired location.
The pros and cons of solar energy
Solar energy is one of the most important sources of energy, and like other forms of energy, it has a set of pros and cons.
Advantages of solar energy
Solar energy has a set of positives that encourage dependence and exploitation. The most important of these are: 
- A renewable source of energy, as the sun’s rays are inexhaustible and always available in all parts of the world.
- It can be used for several applications, such as: electricity and heat production, water desalination and distillation, especially in places where clean water is not available, and it can be used to supply energy to satellites, and other uses.
- Low maintenance costs, despite the high costs of its establishment, its maintenance is available and cheap, and by maintaining it and its cleanliness, it can last for several years.
- Continuous development in the field of solar energy technology, especially nanotechnology and quantum physics, which seeks to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of solar energy generation systems in the future.
Disadvantages of solar energy
Despite the positives that solar energy has, there are a set of disadvantages to it, including: 
- The change in the weather, so the difference in the weather in summer and winter reduces the percentage of benefit from it.
- The inability to use it in the evening, so there must be a device that stores energy, such as a battery.
- Large areas must be provided to collect the largest amount of solar energy; So that solar energy is optimally utilized.
- Its high cost is because it needs techniques and technology to develop solar energy generation systems, as generating electricity from solar energy generation is five times the generation of electricity using fossil fuels. 
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