Solar Cell Idea

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Solar Cell Idea
Solar Cell Idea

Energy

Due to the great pollution that occurs in recent decades to the environment in most parts of the earth, and to the dangerous effects of this pollution on human life on the surface of the earth and its natural environments, the developed countries began to search for a long time for alternative sources of energy that are clean and environmentally friendly, so that they do not cause an impact. Long-term negative on it. The harmful effects of fuel sources on the environment have become very widespread, from which sources are diesel, gasoline and other oil derivatives, and this is what prompted scientists to use natural sources to produce energy to preserve the environment, and from these sources, which are available around the clock, solar energy; Scientists have invented so-called (solar cells) to produce electric energy by relying on sunlight alone. [1]

Some politicians and analysts tend to talk about these alternative energy sources as very expensive and impractical compared to fossil fuels, except that their costs have decreased. Severe since the eighties of the twentieth century so that it has become very low; In 1977 the cost of a single cell was more than a hundred times higher than it was in 2013, and it is one of the vast developments that made it a very popular source of energy in the recent period. [2] In the year 2015, the dependence of the world’s population on solar energy reached 1% of All sources of energy production, which makes it at the forefront of renewable energy types at present. [3]

Solar Cell

solar cells are a machine whose function is to convert the energy in light rays into electrical energy that can be used to supply cities and industrial facilities with what they need. The vast majority of solar cells are currently manufactured from silicon, and the materials in their composition are constantly modified to increase their efficiency (their ability to produce energy relative to their area), as well as reduce their manufacturing and distribution costs. Among the most important features that separate solar cells from others are energy stores, such as batteries, and fossil fuel cells. It does not conduct any chemical reactions inside it, and it does not need any amount of fuel to be able to produce electricity, which makes it very environmentally friendly, and besides all of that, it is distinguished from electrical generators by its lack of need for any moving mechanical parts or to make noise. (4) ]

The idea of ​​solar cells working

The principle of the work of solar cells is based on absorbing sunlight and converting the solar energy into electrical energy that can be used through this process, and in this case the sun has played the role of electrical generators Every day the sun shines, a large energy is released in the form of photons, covering every part of the earth’s surface, and the amount of this energy reaches more than a thousand watts per square meter of the exposed earth, and the solar panels attract this energy. Each of the solar panels contains a group of rows, and each row contains solar cells, and these panels are assembled in very large arrays to form the solar stations that provide energy to cities and factories in many parts of the world. [5]

The solar cell is a semiconductor device with a simple structure, the function of which is to convert the photons in the light rays into forms of energy that humans can benefit from, and the main way to do this transformation is to allow the solar cell to absorb photons and drop them onto a crystal surface consisting of a chemical element. And the crystal or crystalline property indicates that the atoms of this element are arranged at the molecular level in a very precise constant pattern, and silicon is the most popular element for its use in this function because it has common properties between metals (conductive and electric) and insulators (insulators). The formation of the cell. [6]

When the photons collide with the surface of silicon, they ionize its atoms (they transfer an electrical charge to them), which leads to the release of some electrons from them, and thus some crystal atoms remain with a positive charge, and the basic charge can be transferred from one atom to the atom. The solar cell will produce it with light. This interaction can be simplified by the fact that it leads to the generation of electrical energy inside the silicon as soon as the sun rays collide with it. What was the type of material used in the manufacture of the solar cell) and it collects in the form of electrical energy that the solar cell sends to the transformer device. At this point, electricity is produced in the direct current (DC) state. It is electricity that can be produced chemically, and one example is the electricity of batteries, but it cannot be used in its current form in the daily life of a person, and therefore it is necessary to use a special transformer to convert this electricity from the case of direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC) Thus, the electrical energy becomes ready to operate homes and human facilities. [7]

After that, the electrons inside the solar cell begin to move as a result of their acquisition of electric charge, and they form an electric field, and the electrons are released from the silicon crystal (or whatever type of material used in the manufacture of the solar cell) and collect in the form of electrical energy that the solar cell sends to the transformer device . At this point, electricity is produced in the direct current (DC) state. It is electricity that can be produced chemically, and one example is the electricity of batteries, but it cannot be used in its current form in the daily life of a person, and therefore it is necessary to use a special transformer to convert this electricity from the case of direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC) Thus, the electrical energy becomes ready to operate homes and human facilities. [7]

The amount of energy produced depends on the size of the solar panel and the solar cells it contains. In ordinary solar panels, the production capacity of one panel is on average approximately 250 watts, and the production capacity of one panel can be known from the data sheet that is attached to the panels when purchased from a commercial company. This type of production of clean energy from renewable sources has taken a major turn and has gained great importance among organizations and governments interested in preserving the cleanliness of the environment. The quality of its manufacture and production, and the economic feasibility of installing this system can be known by knowing the recovery period for it, during which it will return its costs; The shorter this period, the more financially the project will be. [6]

Resources

  1. www.britannica.com
  2. www.energy.gov
  3. www.revisionenergy.com
  4. www.nationalgeographic.com
  5. greenmatch.co.uk

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